Deliberation Procedures: A Guide to Deliberation in the Classroom | Topics and Deliberation Questions | Handouts 1–3
3D's: Debate, Discussion, and Deliberation: This brief lesson plan outlines an activity using a simple visual chart to explain the differences between debate, discussion, and deliberation.
000001651015xsmallCorruption and Judicial Independence

Should our democracy elect judges?

dreamstime_xs_10003188wbCyberbullying

Should our democracy allow schools to punish students for off-campus cyberbullying?

0605townhallDirect Democracy

Should our democracy allow national referendums?

domesticviolence2Domestic Violence

Should our democracy require health care providers to report domestic abuse to the police?

istock_000016482360xaEnvironment

Should our democracy permit the cultivation of genetically modified foods?

loportFree Trade

Should our democracy participate in free trade agreements?

000017565235xsmallFreedom of Expression

Should our democracy block Internet content to protect national security?

dreamstime_xs_1342035wbJuvenile Justice

In our democracy, should violent juvenile offenders be punished as adults?

istock_000012074329xsmallMigration

In our democracy, should legal foreign workers have the same labor rights as citizens?

votebuttonsMinimum Voting Age

Should our democracy lower the voting age to 16?

000016492579smallNational Service

Should all citizens in our democracy participate in one year of mandatory national service?

dreamstime_s_19023908wbPublic Demonstrations

Should our democracy have the power to prohibit unauthorized public demonstrations?

00000380844Public Health

Should our democracy require schools to provide sex education programs that include contraceptive education?

powerplantState-Owned Enterprises

Should our democracy own and manage companies in key industries?

votehereVoting

Should voting be compulsory in our democracy?

Voting

Materials  |  Audio  |  Poll  | Links to Principles of Democracy Resources  

votehere

Should voting be compulsory in our democracy?

Free and fair elections are essential to a democracy. They make true representative government possible. Through voting, people express their views about government. They choose leaders who will improve their country and community. But what happens when people choose not to vote? Does that indicate democracy is thriving or failing? What, if anything, should be done to improve voter turnout?


Materials

Voting-Lesson:

English

Spanish/Español

Audio

English:

  

Spanish/Español:



Poll


Links to Principles of Democracy

The nature of democracy changes and grows along with its citizenry, but it’s always based on principles that help citizens modify, uphold, and strengthen their democracy. Visit the DDA Democratic Principles and Activities page to learn more about the principles underlying democracy and gain access to activities that help students understand the complexity of democracy. 

We’ve identified some democratic principles addressed in this lesson “Should voting be compulsory in our democracy?”  What principles might you add to the list below?

Please click here for a pdf of the fourteen principles handout on our Democratic Principles & Activities page.

Principles

Accepting the Results of Elections

acceptingelections

Accepting the Results of Elections 
In elections there are winners and losers. Occasionally, the losers believe so strongly that their party or candidate is the best that they refuse to accept that they lost an election.  Assuming an election has been judged “free and fair,” ignoring or rejecting election results violates democratic principles.  Democracy depends on a peaceful transfer of power from one set of leaders to the next, so accepting the results of a free and fair election is essential.

Accountability
Accountability 

accountability

In a democracy elected and appointed officials are responsible for their actions and have to be accountable to the people. Officials must make decisions and perform their duties according to the will and wishes of the people they represent, not for themselves or their friends.
Bill of Rights

billofrights

Bill of Rights
Most democratic countries have a list of citizens’ rights and freedoms.  Often called a “Bill of Rights,” this document limits the power of government and explains the freedoms that are guaranteed to all people in the country.  It protects people from a government that might abuse its powers.  When a Bill of Rights becomes part of a country’s constitution, the courts have the power to enforce these rights.

Citizen Participation

citizenparticipation

Citizen Participation
One of the most basic principles of a democracy is citizen participation in government. Participation is more than just a right—it is a duty. Citizen participation may take many forms, including running for election, voting in elections, becoming informed, debating issues, attending community meetings, being members of private voluntary organizations, paying taxes, serving on a jury, and even protesting.  Citizen participation builds a better democracy.

Regular Free and Fair Elections

elections

Regular Free and Fair Elections 
One way citizens express their will is by electing officials to represent them in government.  In a democracy elections are held regularly, usually every few years.  Democracy insists that elected officials are chosen by the people in a free and fair manner.  Most adult citizens should have the right to vote and to run for office—regardless of their race, gender, ethnicity, and level of wealth.  Additionally, obstacles should not exist which make it difficult for people to vote.  There should be no intimidation, corruption, or threats to citizens before or during an election. 


Resources

Selected Resources

ABC News, “ABC News Poll: Compulsory Voting” (June 11, 2004), http://abcnews.go.com/images/pdf/883a44CompulsoryVoting.pdf.

Carter, Jimmy, “Peru Can Give U.S. Lessons in How to Hold Elections,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution (April 22, 2001), available from the Carter Center, http://www.cartercenter.org/viewdoc.asp?docID=140&submenu=news.

“Compulsory Enrollment and Voting” (Kensington, NSW, Australia: Australasian LegalInformation Institute, Legal Information Access Centre, 2001),http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/liac/hot_topic/hottopic/2001/4/4.html.

Dean, John W., “Is It Time to Consider Mandatory Voting Laws?” Writ: FindLaw’s Legal Commentary (February 23, 2003), http://writ.findlaw.com/dean/20030228.html.

Gratschew, Maria, “Compulsory Voting” (Stockholm, Sweden: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, April 2001), http://www.idea.int/vt/compulsory_voting.cfm.

“Presidential Elections: IDEA Voter Turnout Report” (Stockholm, Sweden: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, November 12, 2004), http://www.idea.int/vt/pres.cfm.

Jackman, Simon, “Compulsory Voting,” a contribution to Elsevier’s International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (December 1, 2004), http://jackman.stanford.edu/papers/cv.pdf#search='Compulsory%20Voting%20Simon%20Ja
ckman%20to%20appear%20in%20the%20International%20Encyclopedia
.

Palda, Filip, “Vote. Or Else!” Fraser Forum (February 2001), http://oldfraser.lexi.net/publications/forum/2001/02/section_09.html.

Parliament of Australia, Parliamentary Library. “Research Brief: Compulsory Voting in Australian National Elections.” March 3, 2008. http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/RB/2005-06/06rb06.pdf  Accessed June 14, 2011.

United Press International, “Mandatory Voting Proposed in Canada,” The Washington Times (January 1, 2005), http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20050101-102110-6338r.htm.

 
 

Migration

Materials  |  Audio  |  Poll  | Links to Principles of Democracy | Resources

istock_000012074329xsmallIn our democracy, should legal foreign workers have the same labor rights as citizens?

In June 2008, a dozen workers from India went on a four-week hunger strike in Washington, DC. They claimed that their employer had abused them and hundreds of other Indian workers. They said the company-provided housing was unclean, that the company paid, low wages, and that it even threatened some workers. The workers said the company promised they could become permanent residents of the United States of America. Instead, they became temporary workers. They did not have the same rights as citizens or permanent residents. Eventually, the workers filed a lawsuit against the company.


Materials (pdf)

Migration—Lesson

English

Spanish/Español

Audio

English:

  


Spanish:



Poll


Links to Principles of Democracy

The nature of democracy changes and grows along with its citizenry, but it’s always based on principles that help citizens modify, uphold, and strengthen their democracy. Visit the DDA Democratic Principles and Activities page to learn more about the principles underlying democracy and gain access to activities that help students understand the complexity of democracy. 

We’ve identified some democratic principles addressed in this lesson “In our democracy, should legal foreign workers have the same labor rights as citizens?” What principles might you add to the list below?

Please click here for the pdf of the fourteen principles handout on our Democratic Principles & Activities page.

Principles

Bill of Rights

billofrightsBill of Rights
Most democratic countries have a list of citizens’ rights and freedoms.  Often called a “Bill of Rights,” this document limits the power of government and explains the freedoms that are guaranteed to all people in the country.  It protects people from a government that might abuse its powers.  When a Bill of Rights becomes part of a country’s constitution, the courts have the power to enforce these rights.<

Economic Freedom

economicfreedomEconomic Freedom
People in a democracy must have some form of economic freedom. This means that the government allows some private ownership of property and businesses.  People are allowed to choose their own work and to join labor unions. The role the government should play in the economy is debated, but it is generally accepted that free markets should exist in a democracy and the state (government) should not totally control the economy.  Some people argue that the state should play a stronger role in countries where great inequality of wealth exists due to past discrimination or other unfair practices.

Equality

equalityEquality
In a democracy all individuals are valued equally, have equal opportunities, and may not be discriminated against because of their race, religion, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation. Individuals and groups maintain their rights to have different cultures, personalities, languages, and beliefs. All are equal before the law and are entitled to equal protection of the law without discrimination.

Human Rights

humanrightsHuman Rights
All democracies strive to value human life and dignity and to respect and protect the human rights of citizens.  Examples include, but are not limited to the following:

Movement: Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of his or her country. Everyone has the right to leave and to return to his or her country.  (Article 13, Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Religion: Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion.  This right includes freedom to change his or her religion and to worship alone or in community with others. It also includes the right to not worship or hold religious beliefs.  (Article 18, UDHR)

Speech: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.  This right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive, and impart information with others. (Article19. UDHR)

Assembly: Everyone has the right to organize peaceful meetings or to take part in meetings in a peaceful way. It is undemocratic to force someone to belong to a political group or to attend political meetings or rallies. (Article 20, UDHR)

Transperancy

transparencyTransparency 
For government to be accountable, the people must be aware of the actions their government is taking.  A transparent government holds public meetings and allows citizens to attend. In a democracy the press and the people are able to get information about what decisions are being made, by whom, and why.



Resources

Selected Resources

Bonilla, Adrian, Gioconda Herrera, and Jacques Ramirez, “Migraciones Latinoamericanas:Proceso Politico, Flujos y Remesas,” paper presented at the Forum of Biarritz, France, November 3–4, 2008.

Borda, Alejandro, “High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development” [Statement on-line] (New York: United Nations General Assembly, September 15, 2006), http://www.un.org/migration/statements.html (accessed May 25, 2011).

Canales, Alejandro I., and Christian Zlolniski, “Comunidades Transnacionales y Migración en la Era de la Globalización,” Notas de Población, no.73 (Santiago de Chile, Chile: 2001), 221- 252.

De la Torre, Adela, and Julia Mendoza, “Immigration Policy and Immigration Flows: A Comparative Analysis of Immigration Law in the U.S. and Argentina,” The Modern American (Summer–Fall 2007).

Durand, Jorge, and Douglas S. Massey, “New World Orders: Continuities and Changes in Latin American Migration,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (Philadelphia, PA: American Academy of Political and Social Science, July 2010).

MacDonald, Euan, and Ryszard Cholewinski, The Migrant Workers Convention in Europe (Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2007).

Migrant Workers’ Rights in North America (Washington, DC: Commission for Labor Cooperation, 2010).

Portes, Alejandro, “Migration, Development, and Segmented Assimilation: A Conceptual Review of the Evidence,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (Philadelphia, PA: American Academy of Political and Social Science, March 2007).

 

Juvenile Justice

Materials  |  Audio  |  Poll  | Links to Principles of Democracy | Resources

dreamstime_xs_1342035wb

In our democracy, should violent juvenile offenders be punished as adults?

For 17 days, people in the Washington, DC, suburbs waited anxiously for police to catch whoever had killed ten people and seriously wounded two others. The killer(s) shot a 13-year-old as he got off a school bus. Others were shot as they put gas in their cars, mowed their lawns, or left restaurants. The police eventually caught the two suspects; one was a 17-year-old boy. He had been abandoned by his father as a baby, neglected by his mother, and spent time in a homeless shelter. The other was his "mentor,” who had essentially adopted him and taught him how to shoot high-powered rifles at people. At his trial, the boy’s lawyers claimed the older man had brainwashed him into becoming a killer. The teen said he thought the ransom would be used to set up a community for other neglected and abandoned children.


Materials (pdf)

Juvenile Justice—Lesson:

English

Spanish/Español

Audio

English:

  

Spanish/Español:



Poll


Links to Principles of Democracy

The nature of democracy changes and grows along with its citizenry, but it’s always based on principles that help citizens modify, uphold, and strengthen their democracy. Visit the DDA Democratic Principles and Activities page to learn more about the principles underlying democracy and gain access to activities that help students understand the complexity of democracy. 

We’ve identified some democratic principles addressed in this lesson “In our democracy, should violent juvenile offenders be punished as adults?” What principles might you add to the list below?

Please click here for the pdf of the fourteen principles handout on our Democratic Principles & Activities page.

Principles

Accountability

Accountability
accountabilityIn a democracy elected and appointed officials are responsible for their actions and have to be accountable to the people. Officials must make decisions and perform their duties according to the will and wishes of the people they represent, not for themselves or their friends.

Bill of Rights

billofrightsBill of Rights
Most democratic countries have a list of citizens’ rights and freedoms.  Often called a “Bill of Rights,” this document limits the power of government and explains the freedoms that are guaranteed to all people in the country.  It protects people from a government that might abuse its powers.  When a Bill of Rights becomes part of a country’s constitution, the courts have the power to enforce these rights.

Citizen Participation

citizenparticipationCitizen Participation
One of the most basic principles of a democracy is citizen participation in government. Participation is more than just a right—it is a duty. Citizen participation may take many forms, including running for election, voting in elections, becoming informed, debating issues, attending community meetings, being members of private voluntary organizations, paying taxes, serving on a jury, and even protesting.  Citizen participation builds a better democracy.

Equality

equalityEquality
In a democracy all individuals are valued equally, have equal opportunities, and may not be discriminated against because of their race, religion, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation. Individuals and groups maintain their rights to have different cultures, personalities, languages, and beliefs. All are equal before the law and are entitled to equal protection of the law without discrimination.

Rule of Law

The Rule of Law 
ruleoflawIn a democracy no one is above the law—not even a king, elected president, police officer, or member of the military.  Everyone must obey the law and will be held accountable if they violate it. Democracy also insists that laws are equally, fairly, and consistently enforced.



Resources

Selected Resources

Arbetman, Lee and Ed O’Brien, “Juvenile Justice,” Street Law: A Course in Practical Law, Eighth Edition (Columbus, OH: Glencoe/McGraw Hill, 2010), 187-193.

Articles 1, 3, 6, and 37, Conventions on the Rights of the Child (New York: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, entered into force September 2, 1990), http://www.unicef.org/crc/ (accessed June 24, 2011).

Collins, Bob, “Should More Juveniles Be Charged as Adults?” Minnesota Public Radio (March 13, 2008), http://minnesota.publicradio.org/collections/special/columns/news_cut/archive/2008/03/should_more_juveniles_be_charg.shtml, accessed June 24, 2011).

“Extorsionadores entrenan a niños sicarios,” Fuente: Diario Peru 21 (September 18 2010), http://peru21.pe/noticia/640999/extorsionadores-entrenan-ninos-sicarios (accessed June 24,2011).

Graham v. Florida U.S. 560 (2010).

Griffin, Patrick, Sean Addie, Benjamin Adams, and Kathy Firestine, "Trying Juveniles as Adults: An Analysis of State Transfer Laws and Reporting," September 2011, National Report Series Bulletin, U. S.  Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/232434.pdf

“In Depth. Timeline: Washington Sniper Killings: First Tarot Card,” BBC News (n.d.), http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/americas/03/washington_sniper/timeline/html/tarot.stm (accessed June 24, 2011).

Justino, Miranda, “Ejército Detiene a ‘El Ponchis,’ el Niño Sicario,’” El Universal [México] (December 3, 2010), http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/727737.html (accessed June 22, 2011).

Kay, Kattie, “Sniper Case Puts Childhood on Trial,” BBC News (November 10, 2003), http://news.bbc.co.uk./2/hi/americas/3258637.stm (accessed June 24, 2011).

Lee, Morgan, “Alleged Teen Hitman ‘El Ponchis’ Charged With Murder in Mexico,” Union Tribune (February 11, 2011), www.borderlandbeat.com/2011/02/alleged-teen-hitman-elponchis-
charged.html (accessed June 24, 2011).

Liptak, Adam, “Justices Limit Life Sentences for Juveniles,” New York Times (May 17, 2010), http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/18/us/politics/18court.html (accessed June 24, 2011).

Mena, Paul, “¿Adolescentes de 16 años juzgados como adultos?” BBC Mundo (August 7 2010), http://www.bbc.co.uk/mundo/america_latina/2010/08/100807_ecuador_carcel_adolescentes_lh.shtml?print=1 (accessed June 24, 2011).

Redding, Richard E., “Juvenile Transfer Laws: An Effective Deterrent to Delinquency?” Juvenile Justice Bulletin (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, August 2008).

Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005).

Scott, Elizabeth S. and Laurence Steinberg, Rethinking Juvenile Justice (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010).

 

 
 

Direct Democracy

Materials  |  Audio  |  Poll  | Links to Principles of Democracy |   Resources

0605townhall

Should our democracy allow national referendums?

The president called it a move to start the country over again. It limited the amount of land anyone could own. It declared the state was secular, meaning not religious. It required judges to be elected. It did these things and much more. It was the constitutional referendum in Bolivia in 2009.


Materials (pdf)

Direct Democracy— Lesson:

English

Spanish/Español

Audio

English:

  

Spanish/Español:



Poll


Links to Principles

The nature of democracy changes and grows along with its citizenry, but it’s always based on principles that help citizens modify, uphold, and strengthen their democracy. Visit the DDA Democratic Principles and Activities page to learn more about the principles underlying democracy and gain access to activities that help students understand the complexity of democracy. 

We’ve identified some democratic principles addressed in this lesson “Should our democracy allow national referendums?” What principles might you add to the list below?

Please click here for the pdf of the fourteen principles handout on our Democratic Principles & Activities page.

Principles

Accountability

accountabilityAccountability 
In a democracy elected and appointed officials are responsible for their actions and have to be accountable to the people. Officials must make decisions and perform their duties according to the will and wishes of the people they represent, not for themselves or their friends.

Citizen Participation

Citizen Participation
citizenparticipationOne of the most basic principles of a democracy is citizen participation in government. Participation is more than just a right—it is a duty. Citizen participation may take many forms, including running for election, voting in elections, becoming informed, debating issues, attending community meetings, being members of private voluntary organizations, paying taxes, serving on a jury, and even protesting.  Citizen participation builds a better democracy.

Control the Abuse of Power

Control of the Abuse of Power
abuseofpowerOne of the most common abuses of power is corruption, which occurs when government officials use public funds for their own benefit or they exercise power in an illegal way.  To protect against these abuses, democratic governments are often structured to limit the powers of government offices and the people who work for them.  For example, the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of government have distinct functions and can “check and balance” the powers of other branches.  In addition, independent agencies can investigate and impartial courts can punish government leaders and employees who abuse power.  

Transparecny

Transparency 
transparencyFor government to be accountable, the people must be aware of the actions their government is taking.  A transparent government holds public meetings and allows citizens to attend. In a democracy the press and the people are able to get information about what decisions are being made, by whom, and why.


Resources

Selected Resources

DuVivier, K.K., "The United States as a Democratic Ideal? International Lessons in Referendum Democracy," Temple Law Review, vol. 79 (2006), 821, http://ssrn.com/abstract=960319 (accessed via SSRN, June 27, 2011).

Initiative and Referendum in the 21st Century: Final Report and Recommendations of the NCSL I&R Task Force (Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures, July 2002).

Morales Viteri, Juan Pablo, Ecuador: Mecanismos de democracia directa (Geneva, Switzerland:
Centre for Research on Direct Democracy, 2008).

Ramírez, Gustavo A., Leonora Alonso Pinzón, Mexico: Mecanismos de democracia directa (Geneva, Switzerland: Centre for Research on Direct Democracy, 2008).

Rupire, Johnattan, Perú: Participación ciudadana y mecanismos de democracia directa(Geneva, Switzerland: Centre for Research on Direct Democracy, 2008).

Thomas Acuña, Evaristo, Colombia: Entre la crisis de la representatividad y la democracia directa (Geneva, Switzerland: Centre for Research on Direct Democracy, 2008).

 

Cyberbullying

Materials  |  Audio  |  Poll  | Links to Principles of DemocracyResources

dreamstime_xs_10003188wbShould our democracy allow schools to punish students for off-campus cyberbullying?

In 2010, Phoebe Prince, a 15-year-old living in the U.S. state of Massachusetts, committed suicide after being bullied by other students. She suffered both face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying, including abusive comments made off-campus on Internet social networks. After her suicide, nine students involved in the cyberbullying faced criminal charges. Phoebe’s story was widely covered in the media, but there are many stories like her in the United States of America.


Materials (pdf)

Cyberbullying—Lesson:

English

Spanish/Español

Audio

English:

  

Spanish/Español:


Poll


Links to Principles of Democracy

The nature of democracy changes and grows along with its citizenry, but it’s always based on principles that help citizens modify, uphold, and strengthen their democracy. Visit the DDA Democratic Principles and Activities page to learn more about the principles underlying democracy and gain access to activities that help students understand the complexity of democracy. 

We’ve identified some democratic principles addressed in this lesson “Should our democracy allow schools to punish students for off-campus cyberbullying?” What principles might you add to the list below?

Please click here for the pdf of the fourteen principles handout on our Democratic Principles & Activities page.

Principles

Bill of Rights

Bill of Rights
billofrightsMost democratic countries have a list of citizens’ rights and freedoms.  Often called a “Bill of Rights,” this document limits the power of government and explains the freedoms that are guaranteed to all people in the country.  It protects people from a government that might abuse its powers.  When a Bill of Rights becomes part of a country’s constitution, the courts have the power to enforce these rights.

Human Rights

Human Rights
humanrightsAll democracies strive to value human life and dignity and to respect and protect the human rights of citizens.  Examples include, but are not limited to the following:

Movement: Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of his or her country. Everyone has the right to leave and to return to his or her country.  (Article 13, Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Religion: Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion.  This right includes freedom to change his or her religion and to worship alone or in community with others. It also includes the right to not worship or hold religious beliefs.  (Article 18, UDHR)

Speech: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.  This right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive, and impart information with others. (Article19. UDHR)

Assembly: Everyone has the right to organize peaceful meetings or to take part in meetings in a peaceful way. It is undemocratic to force someone to belong to a political group or to attend political meetings or rallies. (Article 20, UDHR)


Resources

Selected Resources

Alvarado, Vanessa Maya, and Daniel Tapia Quintana, "Cyberbullying in Mexico: The Importance of Implementing Earlier Public Policies to Limit Its Growth," Revista AZ (January 2010), http://works.bepress.com/daniel_tapia/2 (accessed June 24, 2011).

Del Rio Perez, Jorge, et al., "Cyberbullying: un analisis comparative en estudiantes de Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, y Venezuela,” (Pamplona, Espana: Departamento de Communicacion Audiovisual y Publicidad y Literatura Foro Generaciones Interactivas, Universidad de Navarra, 2009), http://www.generacionesinteractivas.org/?p=1377 (accessed June 24, 2011).

Hinduja, Sameer, and Justin W. Patchin, "Cyberbullying and Suicide Fact Sheet" (Jupiter, FL: The Cyberbullying Research Center, 2010),  http://www.cyberbullying.us/cyberbullying_and_suicide_research_fact_sheet.pdf (accessed June 24, 2011).

Willard, Nancy E.,"Educator’s Guide to Cyberbullying and Cyberthreats” (Eugene, OR: Center for Safe and Responsible Use of the Internet, April 2007), http://www.cyberbully.org/cyberbully/docs/cbcteducator.pdf (accessed June 24, 2011).

 
 
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