Deliberation Procedures: A Guide to Deliberation in the Classroom | Topics and Deliberation Questions | Handouts 1–3
3D's: Debate, Discussion, and Deliberation: This brief lesson plan outlines an activity using a simple visual chart to explain the differences between debate, discussion, and deliberation.
000001651015xsmallCorruption and Judicial Independence

Should our democracy elect judges?

dreamstime_xs_10003188wbCyberbullying

Should our democracy allow schools to punish students for off-campus cyberbullying?

0605townhallDirect Democracy

Should our democracy allow national referendums?

domesticviolence2Domestic Violence

Should our democracy require health care providers to report domestic abuse to the police?

istock_000016482360xaEnvironment

Should our democracy permit the cultivation of genetically modified foods?

loportFree Trade

Should our democracy participate in free trade agreements?

000017565235xsmallFreedom of Expression

Should our democracy block Internet content to protect national security?

dreamstime_xs_1342035wbJuvenile Justice

In our democracy, should violent juvenile offenders be punished as adults?

istock_000012074329xsmallMigration

In our democracy, should legal foreign workers have the same labor rights as citizens?

votebuttonsMinimum Voting Age

Should our democracy lower the voting age to 16?

000016492579smallNational Service

Should all citizens in our democracy participate in one year of mandatory national service?

dreamstime_s_19023908wbPublic Demonstrations

Should our democracy have the power to prohibit unauthorized public demonstrations?

00000380844Public Health

Should our democracy require schools to provide sex education programs that include contraceptive education?

powerplantState-Owned Enterprises

Should our democracy own and manage companies in key industries?

votehereVoting

Should voting be compulsory in our democracy?

State Owned Enterprises

Materials  |  Audio  |  Poll  | Links to Principles of Democracy |   Resources

powerplant

Should our democracy own and manage companies in key industries?

When Robert from California puts gasoline in his car, he pays almost five U.S. dollars per gallon. When Ana from Venezuela fills up, she pays only around 18 U.S. cents per gallon. Why is there such a big difference in gasoline prices in these two countries? The answer may lie in who owns and manages the oil companies.


Materials (pdf)

State Owned Enterprises — Lesson:

English

Spanish/Español

Audio



Spanish/Español:



Poll




Links to Principles

The nature of democracy changes and grows along with its citizenry, but it’s always based on principles that help citizens modify, uphold, and strengthen their democracy. Visit the DDA Democratic Principles and Activities page to learn more about the principles underlying democracy and gain access to activities that help students understand the complexity of democracy. 

We’ve identified some democratic principles addressed in this lesson “Should our democracy allow national referendums?” What principles might you add to the list below?

Please click here for the pdf of the fourteen principles handout on our Democratic Principles & Activities page.

Principles
Economic Freedom

economicfreedomEconomic Freedom
People in a democracy must have some form of economic freedom. This means that the government allows some private ownership of property and businesses. People are allowed to choose their own work and to join labor unions. The role the government should play in the economy is debated, but it is generally accepted that free markets should exist in a democracy and the state (government) should not totally control the economy. Some people argue that the state should play a stronger role in countries where great inequality of wealth exists due to past discrimination or other unfair practices.

Rule of Law

ruleoflawThe Rule of Law
In a democracy, no one is above the law—not even a king, elected president, police officer, or member of the military. Everyone must obey the law and will be held accountable if they violate it. Democracy also insists that laws are equally, fairly, and consistently enforced.


Resources

Selected Resources

Associated Press, "Ecuador president imposes oil nationalization law," Bloomberg Business  Week (July 24, 2010), http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9H5LVA00.htm (accessed November 9, 2012).

Corral, Margarita, "Should Government Own Big Business and Industries? Views from the Americas." AmericasBarometer Insights: 2009 (No. 8), (accessed October 10, 2012).

Emery, Alex and John Quigley, "Peru's Humala Says He Won't Nationalize Gas Industry After Win," Bloomberg (June 9, 2011), http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-06-09/peru-shumala-says-he-won-t-nationalize-natural-gas-industry.html (accesseed August 8, 2012).

Gupta, Girish, Leigh Montgomery, and Michail Vafeiadis, "World's Cheapest Gas: Top 10 Countries," The Christian Science Monitor (February 29, 2012), http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Americas/2011/0913/World-s-cheapest-gas-Top-10-countries/Bahrain-0.78-per-gallon-0.21-per-liter (accessed November 19, 2012).

Kahhat, Farid, "¿Por qué causa controversia llamar a ciertos sectores 'estratégicos'?" América Economia (November 29, 2011), http://www.americaeconomia.com/analisis-opinion/porque-causa-controversia-llamar-ciertos-sectores-estrategicos (accessed October 9, 2012).

Kraus, Clifford and Simon Romero, "In Ecuador, Resentment of an Oil Company Oozes," The New York Times (May 14, 2009), http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/15/business/global/15chevron.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0(accessed November 9, 2012).

"Mixed Bag: SOEs are good at infrastructure projects, not so good at innovation," The Economist (January 21, 2012), http://www.economist.com/node/21542929 (accessed November 7, 2012).

Musacchio, Aldo and Francisco Flores-Macias, "The Return of State-Owned Enterprises: Should we be afraid?" Harvard International Review (April 4, 2009), http://hir.harvard.edu/thereturn-of-state-owned-enterprises (accessed November 28, 2012).

Stanislaw, Joseph and Daniel Yergen, "Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy," (Simon & Schuster, Inc., New York, NY, 1998).

"The 'State is back' in Latinamerica to lessen inequalities, says top UN official," MercoPress (October 17, 2012), http://en.mercopress.com/2012/10/17/the-state-is-back-in-latinamericato-lessen-inequalities-says-top-un-official (accessed November 30, 2012).

Weiner, Tim, "As National Oil Giant Struggles, Mexico Agonizes Over Opening It to Foreign Ventures," The New York Times (February 17, 2002), http://www.nytimes.com/2002/02/17/world/national-oil-giant-struggles-mexico-agonizesover-opening-it-foreign-ventures.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm (accessed November 30, 2012).


 
 

Minimum Voting Age

Materials  |  Audio  |  Poll  | Links to Principles of Democracy |   Resources

votebuttons

Should our democracy lower the voting age to 16?

“It is young people who create the counterculture, who can see reality from another point of view, and who question all of their society’s ideas and prejudices.”

Argentine senator Elena Corregido spoke these words in October 2012. In that month, both houses of the Argentine National Congress voted to lower the voting age from 18 to 16.


Materials (pdf)

Minimum Voting Age — Lesson:

English

Spanish/Español

Audio



Spanish/Español:



Poll


Links to Principles

The nature of democracy changes and grows along with its citizenry, but it’s always based on principles that help citizens modify, uphold, and strengthen their democracy. Visit the DDA Democratic Principles and Activities page to learn more about the principles underlying democracy and gain access to activities that help students understand the complexity of democracy. 

We’ve identified some democratic principles addressed in this lesson “Should our democracy allow national referendums?” What principles might you add to the list below?

Please click here for the pdf of the fourteen principles handout on our Democratic Principles & Activities page.

Principles

Bill of Rights

billofrights

Bill of Rights
Most democratic countries have a list of citizens’ rights and freedoms.  Often called a “Bill of Rights,” this document limits the power of government and explains the freedoms that are guaranteed to all people in the country.  It protects people from a government that might abuse its powers.  When a Bill of Rights becomes part of a country’s constitution, the courts have the power to enforce these rights.

Citizen Participation

Citizen Participation
citizenparticipationOne of the most basic principles of a democracy is citizen participation in government. Participation is more than just a right—it is a duty. Citizen participation may take many forms, including running for election, voting in elections, becoming informed, debating issues, attending community meetings, being members of private voluntary organizations, paying taxes, serving on a jury, and even protesting.  Citizen participation builds a better democracy.

Political Tolerance

politicaltolerancePolitical Tolerance
Democratic societies are politically tolerant. This means that while the majority of the people rule in a democracy, the rights of minorities must be protected. A democratic society is often composed of people from different cultures, races, religions, and ethnic groups who have viewpoints that differ from a majority of the population. People who are not in power must be allowed to organize and speak out. Political minorities are sometimes referred to as “the opposition” because they may have ideas which are different from the controlling majority. If the people in the majority try to destroy the rights of people in minority groups or with minority viewpoints, then they also destroy democracy.


Resources

Selected Resources

Cowley, Philip, and David Denver, "Votes at 16? The case against," Representation, 41.1 (2004), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00344890408523289 (accessed October 31, 2012).

Fontana, Guillermo, "Argentina drops its voter age to 16," CNN, http://www.cnn.com/2012/10/31/world/americas/argentina-youth-vote/index.html (accessed November 1, 2012).

Fuentevilla, Julián Güitrón, "Derecho Familiar," El Sol de Mexico (September 9, 2012),  http://www.oem.com.mx/elsoldemexico/notas/n2688854.htm (accessed December 3, 2012).

Griffiths, Nigel, and Beth Egan, "Give Wayne Rooney the vote," New Statesman, (November 4,  2002), http://www.newstatesman.com/node/144147 (accessed October 30, 2012).

International Foundation for Electoral Systems, "Election Guide – Ecuador,"  http://www.electionguide.org/country-news.php?ID=64 (accessed October 31, 2012).

Oregon v. Mitchell, 400 U.S. 112 (1970).

The Center for Voting and Democracy, "17-year-old Primary Voting Fact Sheet."  http://www.fairvote.org/17-year-old-primary-voting-fact-sheet#.UK0yO2dQDiR (accessed November 21, 2012).

U.S. Const. Amendment XXVI, § 1.

"Votar a los 16: especialistas consideran que los chicos aún no tienen formado el sentido crítico," El Sol Diario Online (August 31, 2012), http://elsolonline.com/noticias/view/146030/votar-alos-16-especialistas-consideran-que-los-chicos-aun-no-tienen-formado-el-sentido-critico  (accessed December 3, 2012).

White, Isobel, "Voting Age," House of Commons Library (November 6, 2012), www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/SN01747.pdf (accessed November 21, 2012).

 

Domestic Violence

Materials  |  Audio  |  Poll  | Links to Principles of Democracy |   Resources

domesticviolence

Should our democracy require health care providers to report domestic abuse to the police?

Imagine you are in a relationship. In a rage, your partner hits you. These blows injure your face. You want to go to the hospital for treatment. But you know that doctors are required by law to report this violent incident to the police. You wonder: Will a report prevent more abuse by holding your partner accountable? Or will a police report lead to retaliation from your partner?


Materials (pdf)

Domestic Violence — Lesson:

English

Spanish/Español

Audio

 



Spanish/Español:



Poll


Links to Principles

The nature of democracy changes and grows along with its citizenry, but it’s always based on principles that help citizens modify, uphold, and strengthen their democracy. Visit the DDA Democratic Principles and Activities page to learn more about the principles underlying democracy and gain access to activities that help students understand the complexity of democracy. 

We’ve identified some democratic principles addressed in this lesson “Should our democracy allow national referendums?” What principles might you add to the list below?

Please click here for the pdf of the fourteen principles handout on our Democratic Principles & Activities page.

Principles
Equality
 

equalityEquality
In a democracy all individuals are valued equally, have equal opportunities, and may not be discriminated against because of their race, religion, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation. Individuals and groups maintain their rights to have different cultures, personalities, languages, and beliefs. All are equal before the law and are entitled to equal protection of the law without discrimination.

Human Rights

humanrightsHuman Rights
All democracies strive to value human life and dignity and to respect and protect the human rights of citizens.  Examples include, but are not limited to the following:

Movement: Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of his or her country. Everyone has the right to leave and to return to his or her country.  (Article 13, Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Religion: Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion.  This right includes freedom to change his or her religion and to worship alone or in community with others. It also includes the right to not worship or hold religious beliefs.  (Article 18, UDHR)

Speech: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.  This right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive, and impart information with others. (Article19. UDHR)

Assembly: Everyone has the right to organize peaceful meetings or to take part in meetings in a peaceful way. It is undemocratic to force someone to belong to a political group or to attend political meetings or rallies. (Article 20, UDHR)


Resources

Selected Resources

World Health Organization and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Preventing Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence against Women (Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2010).

Charlotte Bunch, “The Intolerable Status Quo: Violence against Women and Girls,” The Progress of Nations 1997  (Geneva, Switzerland: UNICEF, 1997), p. 41.

Quoted in “Mexico: Women Reject Normalisation of Gender Violence,” Violence Is Not Our Culture (November
24, 2011), ttp://www.violenceisnotourculture.org/News-and-Views/mexico-women-reject-normalisation-genderviolence.

Quoted in Ariella Hyman, Mandatory Reporting of Domestic Violence by Health Care Providers (San Francisco, CA: Family Violence Prevention Fund, 1997), p. 6.

Quoted in Ariella Hyman, Ariella, Mandatory Reporting of Domestic Violence by Health Care Providers (San
Francisco, CA: Family Violence Prevention Fund, 1997), p. 2.

Travis Fritsch, “Mandatory Reporting of Domestic Violence: Making It Safe and Effective,” Intimate Partner Violence and Surveillance and Research Project (Lexington, KY: 2004).


 
 

Corruption and Judicial Independence

Materials  |  Audio  |  Poll  | Links to Principles of DemocrayResources 

000001651015xsmall

Should our democracy elect judges?

Blind Justice: Justice that is fair because it is neutral and objective. It weighs facts and law, but is “blind” to the relative wealth, status, or identity of those facing judgment. This concept comes from ancient Rome, where the goddess of justice, Justitia, was often depicted holding a set of scales and wearing a blindfold. But what happens when the system of justice is corrupted by outside influences? As John Wester observes, “All it takes is one bad judge to create enormous human misery.”


Materials (pdf)

Corruption and Judicial Independence Lesson:

English

Spanish/Español

Audio

English:

  


Spanish/Español:



Poll


Links to Principles of Democracy

The nature of democracy changes and grows along with its citizenry, but it’s always based on principles that help citizens modify, uphold, and strengthen their democracy. Visit the DDA Democratic Principles and Activities page to learn more about the principles underlying democracy and gain access to activities that help students understand the complexity of democracy. 

We’ve identified some democratic principles addressed in this lesson “Should our democracy elect judges?”  What principles might you add to the list below?

Please here for a pdf of the fourteen principles handout on our Democratic Principles & Activities page.

Principles

Control of the Abuse of Power
abuseofpower

Control of the Abuse of Power
One of the most common abuses of power is corruption, which occurs when government officials use public funds for their own benefit or they exercise power in an illegal way.  To protect against these abuses, democratic governments are often structured to limit the powers of government offices and the people who work for them.  For example, the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of government have distinct functions and can “check and balance” the powers of other branches.  In addition, independent agencies can investigate and impartial courts can punish government leaders and employees who abuse power.

Independent Judiciary
independentjudiciaryIndependent Judiciary
In democracies courts and the judicial system are impartial.  Judges and the judiciary branch must be free to act without influence or control from the executive and legislative branches of government.  They should also not be corrupt or obligated to influential individuals, businesses, or political groups.  These ideas are related to the rule of law and to controlling the abuse of power.  An independent judiciary is essential to a just and fair legal system.

The Rule of Law
ruleoflawThe Rule of Law 
In a democracy no one is above the law—not even a king, elected president, police officer, or member of the military.  Everyone must obey the law and will be held accountable if they violate it. Democracy also insists that laws are equally, fairly, and consistently enforced.


Resources

Selected Resources

Christiansen, Rob, "Perdue Creates Panel to Advise on Judicial Nominees,” News and Observer (April 6, 2011), http://www.newsobserver.com/2011/04/06/1107749/perdue-creates-panel-toadvise.html (accessed July 14, 2011).

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission 558 U.S. 08-205, 130 S. Ct. 876 (2010).

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, SCOTUSBLOG (2010), http://www.scotusblog.com/case-files/cases/citizens-united-v-federal-election-commission/(accessed July 14, 2011).

Cohen, Andrew, "The Case Against Judicial Elections: Keep Politics Out of the Law,” Politics Daily (June 6, 2010), http://www.politicsdaily.com/2010/06/06/the-case-against-judicialelections-keep-politics-out-of-the-la/ (accessed July 10, 2011).

Country Reports (Freedom House, 2007), http://freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=140&edition=8&ccrpage=37 (accessed July 14,

DeBow, Michael, Diane Brey, et al., The Case for Partisan Judicial Elections (: The Federalist Society, January 1, 2003), http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/the-case-for-partisanjudicial-elections (accessed July 10, 2011).

"Editorial: Can Justice Be Bought?” New York Times (June 15, 2011), http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/16/opinion/16thu1.html?_r=1&scp=2&sq=judicial%20independence&st=cse (accessed July 20, 2011).

Global Integrity Report (Global Integrity, 2004-2010), http://www.globalintegrity.org/report (accessed July 14, 2011).

"Illinois Judge Is Sentenced to 12 Years for Conviction of Judicial Corruption,” Chicago Tribune (August 28, 1985), http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=wgU1AAAAIBAJ&sjid=Ck8KAAAAIBAJ&pg=2799,6478540&dq=judicial-corruption&hl=en (accessed July 14, 2011).

"Judicial Commission Suspends Competition Following Corruption Allegations,” Andean Air Mail & Peruvian Times (February 23, 2010), http://www.peruviantimes.com/tag/judicialcorruption/ (accessed July 7, 2011).

"Judicial Elections Have Consequences, Especially If You Are Injured,” The Pop Tort (Center for Justice & Democracy, March 24, 2010), www.thepoptort.com/judicial-elections (accessed July 14, 2011).

"Justice for Sale,” Frontline (WGBH, November 1999), http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/justice/ (accessed July 14, 2011).

Justiciabarómetro: Survey of Judges, Prosecutors, and Public Defenders in Nine Mexican States (Justice in Mexico Project, 2011), http://justiceinmexico.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/110603-ingrodshi.pdf (accessed July 14, 2011).

"La Importante Misión del CNM: Por una Eficiente Administración de Justicia en el Perú,” El Peruano (March 24, 2011), http://www.elperuano.pe/Edicion/Noticia.aspx?key=KevkdQP7j40= (accessed July 14,

Latin America and the Caribbean, Rule of Law Initiative (American Bar Association, n.d.), http://apps.americanbar.org/rol/latin_america/ (accessed July 14, 2011).

"Law 29703 Comes Under Fire for Being "Pro-corruption,” Andean AirMail & Peruvian Times (June 15, 2011), (June 15, 2011), http://www.peruviantimes.com/15/law-29703-comes-under-fire-for-beingpro-corruption/12726/#more-12726 (accessed July 14, 2011).

"Me Enviaron a Prisión Para Que Nadie Más Acuse a Vocales Corruptos de la Suprema," La Republica Peru (September 4, 2008), http://www.larepublica.pe/archive/all/larepublica/20080904/pasadas/15/163872 (accessed July 14, 2011).

Pitarque, Juan Pablo, An Armed Forces Anomaly: Key Ingredients to Ecuador’s Democratic Consistency (Washington, DC: Council on Hemispheric Affairs, August 4, 2010), http://www.coha.org/an-armed-forces-anomaly-key-ingredients-to-ecuador%E2%80%99sdemocratic-consistency/ (accessed July 9, 2011).

Reuters, "World News Briefs: Colombia Law Official Surrenders in Bribe Case,” The New York Times. (May 4, 1996), http://www.nytimes.com/1996/05/04/world/world-news-briefscolombia-law-official-surrenders-in-bribecase.html?scp=2&sq=Orlando%20Vasquez%20Velasquez&st=cse (accessed July 9, 2011).

S.K. "A Cure Worse Than The Disease,” The Economist (February 25, 2011), http://www.economist.com/blogs/americasview/2011/02/ecuadors_politics (accessed July 10, 2011).

State Judicial Elections (Brennan Center for Justice, n.d.), http://www.brennancenter.org/content/section/category/state_judicial_elections (accessed July 20, 2011).

 

Public Health

Materials  |  Audio  |  Poll  |  Links to Principles of Democracy | Resources

00000380844

Should our democracy require schools to provide sex education programs that include contraceptive education?

Sometimes very personal decisions made by individuals can affect society as a whole. When teenagers make decisions that lead to unintended pregnancy, they can negatively affect the common good. Teenage pregnancy is a major public health problem around the world. Many governments are trying to find solutions. One option is for schools to provide sex education programs that teach students about contraceptives. But such programs have sparked heated debate in many countries.


Materials (pdf)

Public Health—Lesson:

English

Spanish/Español

Audio

English:

  

Español:



Poll


Links to Principles of Democracy

The nature of democracy changes and grows along with its citizenry, but it’s always based on principles that help citizens modify, uphold, and strengthen their democracy. Visit the DDA Democratic Principles and Activities page to learn more about the principles underlying democracy and gain access to activities that help students understand the complexity of democracy. 

We’ve identified some democratic principles addressed in this lesson “Should our democracy require schools to provide sex education programs that include contraceptive education?” What principles might you add to the list below?

Please click here for a pdf of the fourteen principles handout on our Democratic Principles & Activities page.

Principles

Economic Freedom

economicfreedom

Economic Freedom
People in a democracy must have some form of economic freedom. This means that the government allows some private ownership of property and businesses.  People are allowed to choose their own work and to join labor unions. The role the government should play in the economy is debated, but it is generally accepted that free markets should exist in a democracy and the state (government) should not totally control the economy.  Some people argue that the state should play a stronger role in countries where great inequality of wealth exists due to past discrimination or other unfair practices.

Equality

equalityEquality
In a democracy all individuals are valued equally, have equal opportunities, and may not be discriminated against because of their race, religion, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation. Individuals and groups maintain their rights to have different cultures, personalities, languages, and beliefs. All are equal before the law and are entitled to equal protection of the law without discrimination.

Human Rights

humanrights Human Rights
All democracies strive to value human life and dignity and to respect and protect the human rights of citizens.  Examples include, but are not limited to the following:

Movement: Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of his or her country. Everyone has the right to leave and to return to his or her country.  (Article 13, Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Religion: Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion.  This right includes freedom to change his or her religion and to worship alone or in community with others. It also includes the right to not worship or hold religious beliefs.  (Article 18, UDHR)

Speech: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.  This right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive, and impart information with others. (Article19. UDHR)

Assembly: Everyone has the right to organize peaceful meetings or to take part in meetings in a peaceful way. It is undemocratic to force someone to belong to a political group or to attend political meetings or rallies. (Article 20, UDHR)


Resources

Selected Resources

Guttmacher Institute, http://www.guttmacher.org (accessed June 16, 2011).

Hastings-Asatourian, Barbara, “Contraception Education in Brazil,” The Practicing Midwife (February 2005), http://salford.academia.edu/BarbaraHastingsAsatourian/Papers/78642/Contraception_Education_in_Brazil (accessed June 16, 2011).

Kantt, Nathalie, “Obligan a las escuelas a enseñar los métodos anticonceptivos,” La Nación (May 30, 2008), http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1016831-obligan-a-las-escuelas-a-ensenar-losmetodos-anticonceptivos (accessed June 1, 2011).

Koch, Wendy,“Others Not Likely to Adopt School’s Contraception Move,” USA Today (October 18, 2007) (accessed via SIRS Researcher May 31, 2011).

Meyer, Jeremy P., “School Is First in DPS to Offer Contraceptives,” Denver Post (August 22, 2010), http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_15854873 (accessed May 31, 2011).

Millennium Development Goals Report 2010 (New York: United Nations, 2010), http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/MDG%20Report%202010%20En%20r15%20-low%20res%2020100615%20-.pdf (accessed June 16, 2011).

Ministerio de Salud Pública (Ecuador), Resumen de la Estrategia Nacional Intersectorial de Planificación Familiar, http://www.msp.gob.ec/images/Documentos/Ministerio/ENIPLA/ENIPLA.pdf (accessed June 16, 2011).

New Colombian Law Ensures Free Access to Contraceptives (New York: Women Deliver, December 13, 2010), http://www.womendeliver.org/updates/entry/new-colombian-lawensures-free-access-to-contraceptives (accessed June 16, 2011).

Planned Parenthood International, http://www.plannedparenthood.org (accessed June 16, 2011).

Redacción Central, "Distribución masiva de anticonceptivos promueve promiscuidad," ACI Prensa (March 7, 2011), http://www.aciprensa.com/noticia.php?n=32819 (accessed June 16, 2011).

Teenage Motherhood in Latin America and the Caribbean: Trends, Problems, and Challenges, Challenges, no. 4 (January 2007), http://www.eclac.org/dds/noticias/desafios/0/27920/desafios_4_eng_Final.pdf (accessed June 16, 2011).

World Health Organization, http://www.who.int (accessed June 16, 2011).

 
 

Page 1 of 2

<< Start < Prev 1 2 Next > End >>